- Technical Paper: A Derivation of Symmetrical Component Theory and Symmetrical Component Networks (630.4KB)
Review symmetrical component analysis.
- Technical Paper: A Practical Guide for Detecting Single-Phasing on a Three-Phase Power System (864.8KB)
Reference for the loss of one or two phases of a radial three-phase system and includes suggested detection and protection methods.
- Technical Paper: A Review of System-Grounding Methods and Zero-Sequence Current Sources (762.3KB)
Grounding methods, sources of ground current, ground-current flow in the power system, and how each impacts protective relaying.
- Technical Paper: A Survey of Cold Load Pickup Practices (668.6KB)
Cold load pickup, the causes and effects.
- Technical Paper: Arc Flash Mitigation Through Use of Voltage Controlled/Voltage Restrained Overcurrent Elements (248KB)
The use of voltage controlled/voltage restrained overcurrent elements as an arc flash mitigation technique.
- Technical Paper: Automatic Reclosing - Transmission Line Applications and Consideration (1.2MB)
Applying autoreclosing to transmission circuits.
- Technical Paper: Breaker Monitoring with Numerical Relays (392KB)
Breaker duty/contact wear monitoring.
- Technical Paper: Bus-Protective Relaying, Methods and Application (1.5MB)
Application of bus-protective relaying, describing and comparing differences.
- Technical Paper: Choosing the Correct Transfer Switch (171.6KB)
For effective ground-fault protection, transfer switch must be chosen at project beginning.
- Technical Paper: Commissioning Numerical Relays (681.2KB)
Experienced-based changes to commissioning tests and revised documentation of settings as a method for commissioning.
- Technical Paper: Considerations for Effective RS-485 Network Design (169.1KB)
Considerations for effective RS-485 network design.
- Technical Paper: Current Transformer Errors and Transformer Inrush as Measured by Magnetic, Optical and other Unconventional CTs (1MB)
Errors in secondary current for these primary current conditions determine when CTs are at risk, and show, using numerical analysis, the output of a saturated CT.
- Technical Paper: Directional Overcurrent Relaying in the Distributed Generation Environment (1MB)
Basics of directional overcurrent relaying as applied in modern numeric relays.
- Technical Paper: Effect of Transformer Connection and Construction on Single-Phasing Detection / Single-Generator Stator Protection (920.4KB)
Event, failure analysis, transformer theory, and relay solutions from loss-of-phase event at generating station.
- Technical Paper: Fundamentals and Advances in Breaker-Failure Protection (703.4KB)
Deciding whether to apply dedicated breaker failure protection.
- Technical Paper: Ground Differential Protection: Revisited (265.3KB)
Principles of ground differential protection within industrial power systems.
- Technical Paper: Life Lessons from the Power System (681.3KB)
Explores the basic principles of relay protection design and relay protection commissioning, while reflecting upon lessons learned.
- Technical Paper: Load Shedding for Utility and Industrial Power System Reliability (572.6KB)
Analysis of the conditions in which load shedding may be needed and review of load shed implementation strategies.
- Technical Paper: Negative-Sequence Relaying Applications in Ungrounded and High-Impedance Grounded Industrial Systems (591.4KB)
Negative-sequence overcurrent sensing to detect faults.
- Technical Paper: Power Quality: Measurement of Sags and Interruptions (362.9KB)
Measurement of power quality use of meters for residential and small commercial customers as a tool to track outage issues.
- Technical Paper: Protective Relaying Issues in Low-Voltage Systems as Addressed in the National Electric Code (1.2MB)
Low Voltage (LV) design practices, as mentioned in the National Electric Code (NEC).
- Technical Paper: Protective Relaying Methods for Reducing Arc-Flash Energy (653.1KB)
Arc flash standards/requirements and high-speed detection and operation techniques used to reduce arc-flash energy via protective relays.
- Technical Paper: Protective Relaying When Distributed Generation is Added to Your Circuit (474.5KB)
Advantages of having numeric multifunction protection in place when distributed generation is added to a radial-distribution circuit.
- Technical Paper: Reliability Considerations of Multifunction Protection (331KB)
Reliability of numerical multifunction protection systems against predecessor technologies.
- Technical Paper: Upgrading Relay Protection? - Be Prepared. (336.4KB)
Guidance for your next replacement or upgrade project.
- Technical Paper: Using GOOSE Messages in a Main-Tie-Main Scheme (499.5KB)
Main-tie-main circuit breaker bus switching scheme performed using IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging.
- Technical Paper: Voltage Restrained Time Overcurrent Relay Principles, Coordination, and Dynamic Testing Considerations (330.1KB)
Dynamic response of 51/27R relays in which the overcurrent element conforms to the dynamic characteristic defined in ANSI C37.112.
- Technical Paper: Who has the 32? (2.8MB)
Understanding Directional Power (ANSI device number 32) protection.
- Technical Paper: Zero-Sequence Impedance of Overhead Transmission Lines (716.5KB)
Transmission-line impedances, centering on zero-sequence impedances.